We have new CCTV cameras, but now what? This is the type of question we often hear. For example, do we primarily want the CCTV devices to deter offenders, detect attempts, or document them for trial and planning, or some combination? This distinction is huge because each CCTV use objective can mean slightly different camera form factors and deployment tactics. And to cost-effectively reduce crime and loss, we really have to get it right or at least close. The fancy term for this in policing and medicine is dosage and diffusion. What we do, not just that we do it, is critical. We’ve got to engage with the asset, the space or place, and of course the offender. But how do we best do this? What are some evidence-based methods?
The Why Is Important
Before we do something, however, it is always important to think about and know, via evidence, why we’re doing something. Why do we want to deploy this tactic? What do we expect it to do? How will it do this? How does it really work in the field? We call this a logic model.
We take a pain reliever to relive a headache because multiple randomized controlled trials demonstrate consistent efficacy. Further, how the medicine works to relieve pain—its mechanism of action or MOA—has been repeatedly identified. Doctors know not only that it generally works but also how it works to relieve pain.
Here is ibuprofen’s MOA according to “PharmGKB Summary: Ibuprofen Pathways” by Mazaleuskaya and others in a 2014 edition of Pharmacogenetics and Genomics: “The main mechanism of action of ibuprofen is the non-selective, reversible inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2 (coded for by PTGS1 and PTGS2, respectively). Of the two enantiomers, S-ibuprofen is a more potent inhibitor of COX enzymes than R-ibuprofen, with a stronger inhibitory activity at COX-1 than COX-2 in vitro. COX-1 and COX-2 catalyze the first committed step in the synthesis of prostanoids–prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGD2, PGF2alpha, PGI2 (also known as prostacyclin), and thromboxane (Tx) A2–from arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from the cell membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2, PLA2, encoded by PLA2G4A (cytosolic, calcium-dependent) and PLA2G2A (in platelets and synovial fluid). …”
We certainly don’t need nor will probably ever have such a scientifically derived MOA, but as the loss prevention experts for our employers, we should have a good understanding of how an investment we want to make will actually do what we say it will. And we need to know how much of our LP solution to deploy. For Advil, a brand-name ibuprofen, the standard adult dosage is one tablet by mouth while symptoms persist, not to exceed six tablets in 24 hours, unless directed by a doctor.
The How Is Important
What, how, where, how much, how often, and how long we do something really matters. Our team suggests you consider several dosage dimensions when you’re looking to deploy a protective action:
- Active. How do we do this, what does it look like, who should do it, how many do we need, and what else should I do to make this work better?
- Spatial. Where across my chain, and where on my property?
- Temporal. When do I deploy and for how long? And how often do I change things up?
In this column this year, we’ll continue to discuss our findings on what works better than other options. We have new research findings around what, how much, where, when, and who—in other words, dosage.
Working Groups Make Us Go
Loss Prevention Research Council (LPRC) working groups are the primary way the organization supports retailer member improvement. Working groups get multiple retail experts, solution partners, LPRC staff, and others together monthly to set and discuss priority research and development needs and findings. Here are some key points followed by a list of the groups themselves:
- LPRC’s eleven working groups focus retailers, solution partners, and scientists collaboratively on specific crime and loss control problems.
- LPRC members enroll their corporate and field team members into all their priority working groups to simultaneously provide company LP/AP process improvement and individual professional development.
- Retailer experts drive the working groups’ outputs by working group leaders setting group priorities, running the monthly group calls, webinars, and field trips, and making the working group part of their regular work efforts. Each group strives to generate two to four actionable project reports annually.
- The working groups also meet at the annual LPRC Impact conference to discuss the year’s work and projects and to plan for next year’s output.
- The LPRC board of advisors working group committee checks in quarterly with all working group leaders and monitors at least one call to assess the groups’ focus, member experience, and work output.
Product Protection Working Group
Team coleaders: Adam Hartway, Digital Safety; Corrie Tallman, Walmart; Brianna Betts, CVS
Current members: Verizon, Best Buy, Office Depot, Price Chopper, Target, Walgreens, Loblaw, Sam’s Club
Data Analytics Working Group
Coleaders: Scott Pethuyne, Justice; Kyle Grottini, CAP Index
Current members: Walmart, Meijer, dressbarn, Bloomingdale’s, Loblaw, Ralph Lauren, Target, Office Depot, REI, Price Chopper
Video Solutions Working Group
Coleaders: Justin Taylor, TJX; Jeana Pantoliano, Bloomingdale’s; Hedgie Bartol, Axis
Current members: Price Chopper, Walmart, Office Depot, 7-Eleven, Publix
Supply-Chain Protection Working Group
Leader: Kevin Taparausky, TJX
Coleaders: Mike Combs, Home Depot; Shannon Hunter, Office Depot
Current members: Target, Luxottica, Tractor Supply, Best Buy, 7-Eleven, ULTA Beauty, Publix
LP Innovation Working Group
Coleaders: Tom Meehan, Bloomingdale’s; Stacie Bearden, Home Depot
Current members: Target, Tyco, AutoZone, Price Chopper, Ralph Lauren, Verizon, Macy’s, REI
Organized Retail Crime Working Group
Leaders: Denny Dansak, Kroger; Tony Sheppard, CVS
Coleaders: Abe Gonzalez, Bloomingdale’s; Shane Hunter, Walmart
Current members: Publix, Walmart, Ahold USA, Walgreens, Target, Best Buy, Home Depot, Tractor Supply, Lowe’s, AutoZone, Verizon, T-Mobile, Macy’s, eBay, DICK’s Sporting Goods, Luxottica
Violent Crime Working Group
Leader: Kevin Larson, Kroger
Coleaders: Basia Pietrawska, CAP Index; Russell Hinds, Walmart; Mike Aldridge, 7-Eleven; Nolan Bomar, Publix
Current members: Rite Aid, T-Mobile, Walgreens, CVS, Target, Location Inc., General Growth Properties, Best Buy
Retail Fraud Working Group
Leader: Sean O’Brien, Target
Coleaders: Tom Meehan, Bloomingdale’s; Graham Twidale, 7-Eleven
Current members: Walmart, CVS, Macy’s, Ahold USA, Justice, Walgreens, DICK’s Sporting Goods, Office Depot, Kroger
LP Strategic Partnerships Working Group
Leader: John Doggette, Lowe’s
Coleaders: Karen Sinning, Walmart; Andrea Guthrie, DICK’s Sporting Goods; Maria Acosta, Zip Ed Tech
Current members: Toys“R”Us, Best Buy, Tractor Supply, Home Depot, Bloomingdale’s, Ascena, Cracker Barrel, CVS, General Growth Properties, Kroger, Luxottica, Publix, REI, Rite Aid
Food and Drug and Health and Beauty Care Action Team
Coleaders: Kevin Larson, Kroger; Ben Friedman, Walmart; Jim Cosseboom, Ahold USA; Scott Ziter, Price Chopper; Renee Micek, Avery Dennison
Current members: Walgreens, CVS, Publix, Target, Best Buy, DICK’s Sporting Goods, Luxottica, Meijer, Tractor Supply, REI
Specialty Retail Action Team
Leaders: Millie Kresevich, Luxottica; Miguel Merino, Ralph Lauren
Current members: Sterling Jewelers, AutoZone, 7-Eleven, ULTA Beauty, Verizon
LPRC and the University of Florida (UF) are conducting some upcoming gatherings to explore and set research and development priorities. These include the Baltimore/DC Corridor Robbery and Violence Summit on Tuesday, March 21, 2017; Canada Day at the LPRC UF Innovation Lab (date to be announced); and Total Community Solution Colloquy, a law enforcement, retailer, and media gathering at UF (date to be announced).
Space, Time, and Crime (third edition) by Kim Lersch and Timothy Hart describes theory and logic models and evidence around why crime events tend to concentrate in place and time and for specific reasons. The more we know about those mechanisms, the more precise our protective actions to affect specific mechanisms or variables.