Home Authors Posts by David E. Zulawski, CFI, CFE, and Shane G. Sturman, CFI, CPP

David E. Zulawski, CFI, CFE, and Shane G. Sturman, CFI, CPP

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Zulawski and Sturman are executives in the investigative and training firm of Wicklander-Zulawski & Associates (w-z.com). Zulawski is a senior partner, and Sturman is president. Sturman is also a member of ASIS International’s Retail Loss Prevention Council. They can be reached at 800-222-7789 or via email at dzulawski (at) w-z (dot) com and ssturman (at) w-z (dot) com.

Storytelling: Expanding Empathy and Showing Understanding in Interviews

The investigator uses stories to build a connection with the subject, showing understanding, sharing empathy, and building rapport.

Storytelling: Part 1

Why do we use a story when we rationalize? Stories help us put an order to the chaotic patterns and details of our existence.

Types of Denials

When a suspect denies involvement at the onset of an interrogation, it will be extremely difficult to persuade them to change their mind. The...
Woman thinking before speaking

The Words Matter

While nonverbal behaviors are open to interpretation by observers, the word choice individuals use must have been intentionally picked to express the person’s meaning. By examining the words selected, an interviewer can identify underlying information that needs to be more fully explored.

Liars, Lying, and Lies

The first thing we should consider when examining lying is the differing cognitive aspects of the liar and truth teller. The truthful person knows they didn’t do the crime, while the liar knows they did and must hide that information from others. There are multiple ways for interviewers to identify liars.

Nonverbal Deception: Context in an Investigation Can Help Interpret Nonverbal Behaviors

The detection of deception is a complex process, one that is never likely to be fully mastered by man without the help of technology. While researchers have generally focused on single nonverbal cues to identify deception, an investigator has a much richer environment offering a greater depth of clues to lead the investigation.

Thought and Gesture: Part 3

In the first two parts of this series on thoughts and gestures in interviewing, we looked at gestures that occur in combination with spoken words. These gestures are also sometimes called illustrators as they help the speaker add meaning and context to the words spoken. There are other physical movements people make that are not done to support the actual spoken language. In part 3 we discuss pantomimes, emblems, and adaptors.

Thought and Gesture: Part 2

We discussed some of the geographic differences when using gestures in other cultures in our last column. We also touched on the differences between...
dishonest employee

When a Dishonest Employee “Doesn’t Remember”

In situations where a subject reverts to “I don’t remember,” it is generally a means of defending himself without having to admit to participation in a particular act.
sexual harassment investigation

How to Organize a Sexual Harassment Investigation

Today in many organizations, the loss prevention function assists human resources in investigating allegations of sexual misconduct, bullying, and hostile workplace situations. These types of cases are very different from investigations of dishonest associates.

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